First digital computer, by country
While reading ENIAC, I had an idea to research computer pioneers around the world. I’ve left out ENIAC and Turing since many people are already aware of them.
This list is incomplete. Please add to this list with your local knowledge and language experience. Leave a comment or e-mail me (ndoiron AT mapmeld DOT com)
Afghan airline Ariana… supported by the company Sherkate Nasaji Afghan, an IBM 360/30 was bought in 1972
Considering computers and computer networking, It started in 1971 with creation of the first Center of Mathematical Calculus, firstly as department of University of Tirana, and latter part of Academy of Sciences. The Center was equipped with computers of second generation and used for application of mathematical methods in different areas of human activity
The first computer was installed here in 1960 but until 1964 it was the only one in operation, meeting the needs of most government offices. Requirements were simply of a bookkeeping nature. (article: 1970)
Angola (possibly 1965)
The first IBM 1401 data processing system in Angola is installed by the Army
Antarctica (possibly 1971)
1983: DEC disk-based computer system supplants HP units which used paper and mag tape
plus personal correspondence
at the School of Engineering of the University of Buenos Aires, there was a project, directed by Humberto Ciancaglini, to build a computer, named CEFIBA (Electronic Computer of the School of Engineering). The computer was built between 1958 and 1962…
…the School of Sciences decided to buy a computer. A committee was formed, whose members were Sadosky, Alberto González Domínguez and Simón Altman (Altman, who had worked at Oxford University, was the only one that had experience with computers)…
…the building where the computer would be installed at the University Campus was under construction, and part of it should be ready when the computer arrived, that is, in January, 1961.
The first Nairi (Armenian: Նաիրի) computer was developed and launched into production in 1964, at the Yerevan Research Institute of Mathematical Machines (Yerevan, Armenia).
CSIRAC (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Automatic Computer), originally known as CSIR Mk 1, was Australia’s first digital computer, and the fifth stored program computer in the world.
Mailüfterl was built from May 1956 to May 1958 at the Vienna University of Technology by Heinz Zemanek. The first program, computation of the prime 5 073 548 261, was executed in May 1958.
Bahamas (pre 1970?)
A LinkedIn profile lists work as a programmer at GRAMCO in 1970–71
Bahrain’s government is said to have installed its first computer in 1978… the Central Informatics Organization (CIO)… was founded in October 1967
The first computer in Bangladesh (then East Pakistan) was an IBM mainframe 1620 series, installed in 1964 at the Dhaka center of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (later theBangladesh Atomic Energy Commission).
From 1959 to 1975, several types of general-purpose computers were developed in Belarus. These machines had become a basis for the Soviet fleet of computers, and their large-scale production was organized.
In 1958 on the Brussels World Exposition [an IBM] RAMAC was shown.
Visitors could give a date… using the “manual enquiry station” and the visitor got a printed paper explained what happened on that date
Bhutan (early 1980s)
Though the exact date of entry of the first computer in Bhutan remains unknown, those having long experience in the Bhutanese bureaucracy claim that Bhutan started using computers only from early 80s.http://www.apfanews.com/commentary/from-bhutan-to-e-bhutan.html
Bolivia (before 1969)
The largest computer in Bolivia is an IBM 1440 system… It is also, at the present time, one of three computers in the whole country, all located in La Paz. This computer belongs to the Corporacion Minera de Bolivia.
Computing in Botswana started in 1969 when a government computer bureau (GCB) was established. Early public sector applications were limited to financial and accounting systems.
BSP [Brunei Shell Petroleum] stressed computer and information technology training for employees and brought the first computer to Brunei in 1967
The IMKO-1 (Bulgarian: Индивидуален микро компютър (ИМКО-1), Individualen Micro KOmputer, Individual micro computer) was the first Bulgarian personal computer, built in 1979 in Pravetz, Bulgaria
During this period, the Central Data Processing Department and the Study and Coordinating Commission for Data Processing and Accounting Equipment was set up… entrusted with the mechanization of customs liquidation procedures, duties and taxes recovery and the initiation of a common policy for the use of machines…
Ferut was an ambitious project... it was one of the world’s first computers, and the first to be exported three thousand miles… the University, Ferranti and others managed to get the machine working for the 1952 Toronto Computer Conference.
The first digital computer for scientific and engineering applications was installed in Chile in 1962. It was an ER-56 Standard Elektrik Lorenz (“Lorenzo” by its Spanish nickname) made in Germany. It was acquired the Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences of University of Chile.
Despite IBM’s dominant position in the Chilean market, the first electronic computer at the University of Chile was not an IBM machine. The Department of Mathematics purchased a Germanmade Standard Electric ER-Lorenz in 1959
In April 1957, by the government, China ordered a M-3 computer and computer design drawings... Led by Zhang Zichang and Mo Gensheng, M-3 (Code 103) Computer Engineering Group was organized. Through the efforts of all staff, in close collaboration with Beijing Cable Plant, China’s first digital computer successfully developed on August 1, 1958.
Colombia se metió temprano en la onda de la sistematización con la llegada del primer computador en 1957.
Costa Rica (1968)
La primera computadora del país, una IBM 16–20 llamada “Matilde”, permanece como una pieza de museo en la entrada del Centro de Informática de la Universidad de Costa Rica… Fue traída en setiembre de 1968
Finales de 1958: Se introduce en Cuba la primera computadora electrónica IBM RAMAC, que se basaba en válvulas y tubos al vacío
En abril de 1970 y luego de casi dos años de investigación y desarrollo, la Universidad de La Habana, por orden e iniciativa del presidente y líder cubano Fidel Castro presentó en sociedad la primera computadora diseñada en la isla, la CID-201
Czech Republic (1956)
SAPO in Prague (source was a PowerPoint file)
The DASK was the first computer in Denmark. It was commissioned in 1955, designed and constructed by Regnecentralen, and began operation in September 1957. DASK is an acronym for Dansk Aritmetisk Sekvens Kalkulator or Danish Arithmetic Sequence Calculator.
Dominican Republic (1963-64)
Una investigación realizada por Hiddekel Morrison sobre la historia de la primera computadora en la República Dominicana destaca que fue una computadora automática universal, mejor conocida como UNIVAC, que llegó al país a finales de 1963. Morrison dijo que fue instalada en los primeros meses de 1964 en el Central Romana Corporation… http://hoy.com.do/tecnologiaprimera-computadora-llego-a-la-republica-dominicana-en-1964/
East Timor / Timor-Lest (1990s?)
ICT is new to Timor-Leste: the first computer arrived only in the early 1990s
la primera computadora que llegó al Ecuador es una IBM sistema 3 en 1967 para el Banco del Pacífico, que trajo para instalar y capacitar a los usuarios un equipo de profesionales extranjeros https://es.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090630150434AAKkVRs
In 1962, the first computers were introduced into Egypt… The first computer to be installed at a university was in 1964 (at the University of Alexandria)
El Salvador (1962)
La empresa La Constancia, S.A. fue posiblemente la primera en traer una computadora a El Salvador, según ha quedado registrado. Fue una IBM 1401. http://histsv.blogspot.com/
The first minicomputer called STEM… was designed and built very early in Estonia — in years 1962–1964 at the Electrotechnical Research Institute in Tallinn.
Although the exact date is not known, it was between 1965 and 1970 that an electronic data-processing system, an IBM model 360/20, a punched card system, was installed in Ethiopia. It had a memory capacity of 8–16 KB.
1967 First computer Fiji WAN for many Govt systems (Immigration/payroll/etc)
ESCO computer 1955–1960
In 1952 Compagnie des Machines Bull, the first French electronic computer manufacturer, produced its Gamma 3 electronic calculator.
The first computer in Ghana was installed in 1963
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Kusami upgrades its basic IBM 1620 into a full-capacity system with card processing capability.
The first IBM 1401 data processing system… is used by the Ghana Housing Corporation in Accra
In December 1956, the powerful IBM 604 was presented in Greece as a showpiece of the Office Machinery Exhibition, which was part of the first Panhellenic Accounting Conference of Greece, held at the building of the Athens School of Commercial Studies (known today as the Athens University of Economics and Business). In 1957, the NBG was the first company in Greece to obtain the IBM 604, followed by the Railway Company and the Seamen’s Pension Fund.
IBM delivered computers to a site in Greenland in late 1959, but “IBM-watchers” claimed that the machines, as delivered, were not finished
En 1944 con la revolución, se reorganizo la dirección de estadística y se adquirió por recomendación del ingeniero Arias una computadora IBM que se uso en el censo de población, vivienda y agricultura de 1950.
Despues adquirienron una IBM 101 electrónica en 1953–1954.
Aquí en Honduras el sistema Hollerit fue introducido por la Dirección General de Presupuesto siendo Ministro Bueso Arias en 1958 se compró el sistema Hollerit y en 1960 un sistema IBM1440 con 20Kb de Ram y 200Kb en cada disco con 6 discos, la oficina de IBM estaba en Comayagüela en 1962.
Hong Kong (1967?)
HSBC’s first computer arrived in Hong Kong in 1967. Although bulky, the machine paved the way for the computerisation of HSBC’s accounts, allowing Hong Kong customers to bank at any HSBC branch in the city for the first time
The first Hungarian vacuum tube computer, the M3 was built based on Soviet documentation. The MTA KKCs started the work in 1957 with many young engineers and mathematicians
At the end of World War II, people considered Iceland an underdeveloped country. The use of IBM punched card systems started in 1949. The first computers appeared in 1964.
India bought its first computer in 1956 for a princely sum of Rs 10 lakh. It was called HEC-2M and was installed at Calcutta’s Indian Statistical Institute
The first IBM 1401 is installed at the Stanvac Refinery in Palembang, South Sumatra.
A BTM (British Tabulating Machines) ITC 1201 purchased by the Irish Sugar Company and installed at the Company’s factory in Thurles in 1957.
Thanks to Michael for e-mailing this one in!
Elea 9001 (Machine Zero) prototype was made with vacuum tubes, but used germanium transistors for the tape drive system. The system was completed in spring 1957 and was later sent toIvrea where for six years it controlled the Olivetti production warehouses.
Ivory Coast / Côte D’ivoire (1962–1964)
The first computer, a GAMMA 30, made by the Bull Company, was installed in the Ministry of Economy and Finance at the Office of Statistics as early as 1962.
The first IBM 1440 tape system in the country is installed by the Social Security agency.
The origin of computer usage in Jordan is a fairly recent one. In 1969 the first computer was brought into the country. Until 1977, only five organizations had computers.
In the mid-1950s, the BTM company set up shop in Nairobi as the BTM (EA) Ltd. The original office was on the floor above the Boero car dealership showroom, directly opposite the Donovan Maule Theatre. Some of the first companies to place orders for these bulky computers were the East African Railways and Harbours (EAR&H) and East African Power and Light (EAP&L).
Latvia (early 1960s)
The first computer in Latvia was created in the newly-established Institute of Electronics and Computer Science (IECS) at the beginning of 60-ties.
Vilniaus skaičiavimo mašinų gamykla was computer and their component manufacturer (since 1957)
In 1963, the computer came on board. The Ministry of Finance through the statistics department abandoned the old traditional equipment for computers and centralized all its activities in Antananarivo by setting up two centers with IBM 1401 computers.
The first computer procured in Malawi was for the National Statistical Office to conduct a population census in 1966.
The first to use and introduce computer in Malaysia is believed to be Lembaga Letrik Negara which is today known as Tenaga Nasional (the national electricity board). It began to use computer in 1965 to process staff salary payment.
Government’s first computer, a Data General Eclipse Minicomputer System, was acquired by the MPND.
I saw this computer at the National Museum in Malé, Maldives:
Computing in Malta can be traced back to 1947 when the British Tabulating Machines company (BTM , later to become ICL) opened an office in Valletta and introduced its first automatic data processing (ADP) system in a local brewery that same year…
In Malta, the late 1960s may be considered as the period when the first signs of the computer’s importance became visible.
Según el sitio de la Universidad Autónoma de México, la IBM 650 adquirida por esta universidad en 1958 e instalada en la Facultad de Ciencias, es considerada como la primera computadora de México y de América Latina.
Mongolia first started using computers in 1973. The very first computer brought to Mongolia was the Minsk-32, after that, the IBM-360 and 370 were imported
The first modern computer was introduced in Morocco immediately after the country acquired its independence in 1957
Myanmar / Burma (1972–1973)
a mainframe known as the ICL 1902S, produced by International Computers Limited…
The ICL 1902S was delivered in December 1972 and moved into the computer room, with its air conditioning and cutting-edge power supply, to start the installation process.
Acceptance trials for the ICL 1902S and the environmental equipment started on February 25, 1973, and were formally completed on March 8, 1973.
1979 Jan The first computer in Myanmar — IBM PDP-11 mainframe at Universities Computer Center (UCC).
The first computer brought in Nepal was IBM 1401 which was brought by the government in lease for the population census of 1972 http://umeshcomputer.blogspot.com/2011/04/history-of-computer-in-nepal_05.html
The Netherlands (1952)
The ARRA (for “Automatische Relais Rekenmachine Amsterdam”) was the first Dutch computer, and was built from relays for the Dutch Mathematical Centre… It was designed and built by Carel Scholten and Bram Loopstra, and was finished in 1952.
New Zealand (1962)
The Census and Statistics Office acquired its first computer in 1962.
Nicaragua (before 1984)
(IBM is presently the only computer vendor operating in Nicaragua.)
Compagnie Francaise de l’Afrique Occidentale acquires IBM data processing (DP) equipment in Lagos.
In 1964, the IBM 1401 system became Nigeria’s first government computer system, speeding payroll preparation, organizing national education and keeping track of freight cars for the Nigerian Rail Corporation.
NUSSE (Norsk Universell Siffermaskin, Sekvensstyrt, Elektronisk) was the first Norwegian electronic computer. It was constructed from 1950 through 1953 and unveiled at the University of Oslo in April 1954
Oman (late 1970s)
the beginning of the ICT industry in Oman technically dates to the late 1970s and early 1980s
The first computer in Pakistan, for example, was a 1401 installed at Pakistan International Airlines.
En julio de 1970 llegaba al Paraguay la primera computadora electrónica, un mes después, en agosto, quedaba inaugurada la primera sala de computación
La primera computadora en llegar a una universidad peruana fue la IBM 1620 (Modelo I), y la universidad que tuvo dicha computadora fue laUNI (Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería)
1960: The first computer system in the Philippines — an IBM 650 — is installed at the Bureau of Lands to handle the country’s land survey computations.
The first electronic digital computer to be constructed in Poland was the EMAL (Electronic Machine Automatically Computing), or the EMAL-1, based on the British EDSAC machine. Work began on the machine in 1953, and reached its most complete phase in 1955. http://ethw.org/Computing_in_Poland
Republic of the Congo (1952–1964)
As far back as 1952, the Governor General of the French Equatorial Africa (FEA) established a data processing workshop with traditional IBM equipment for the processing of civil service payroll, the FEA customs statistics and other statistical data…
Following the installation in 1964 of the first computer in Brazzaville, a card-based IBM 1401 the consultancy firm… was asked to design new applications including payroll revision, taxes and tax recovery, capital expenditure, foreign trade statistics (customs).
CIFA is the acronym for “Calculatorul Institutului de Fizică Atomică”.
CIFA-1, the first Romanian computer, was built in 1957 under the guidance of Victor Toma.
Russia / Soviet Union (1952)
BESM-1, originally referred to as simply the BESM or BESM AN (“BESM Akademii Nauk”, BESM of the Academy of Sciences), was completed in 1952.
Saudi Arabia (1947?)
IBM’s presence in the Middle East and Pakistan dates back over 60 years to the installation of the first computer at Saudi Aramco in 1947.
Banque Senegalaise de Development acquires an IBM 1401 data processing system in its Dakar headquarters.
CER-10 Mihajlo Pupin 1960 First computer designed and produced in SFRY
Sierra Leone (1963)
In Sierra Leone the first computer was installed at the Central Statistics Office in 1963 to process population census data and coordinate all statistical activities undertaken by the civil service.
In the government sector, the first computer was installed at the central provident fund board in 1964. In the same year… Ministry of Finance
South Korea (1967)
In 1967, Korea’s Economic Planning Board statistics department implemented the IBM 1401 system to process data collected during the 1966 Korean National Census... [It] was the first computer ever implemented in the Republic of Korea.
El Museo de las Ciencias Príncipe Felipe de Valencia expone desde este lunes en la Calle Menor, una zona de libre acceso al público, el primer ordenador que llegó a España en el año 1959. Se trata del modelo de IBM ‘650 Magnetic Drum Calculator’
Sri Lanka (1967)
…the first ever electronic computer in Sri Lanka which was installed at the State Engineering Corporation, exactly 40 years ago in 1967.
IBM World Trade had been in operation in Sri Lanka since 1962, but for sometime it did not sell any computers. Instead it offered data processing services… In late 1960s three organisations in Sri Lanka decided they need computers of their own. State Engineering corporation and Central Bank of Sri Lanka purchased IBM computers while Petroleum Corporation opted for an ICL computer.
There are unconfirmed reports that a private company (Walkers) used a computer even before 1967. However this is doubtful.
Sir Arthur C. Clarke claims that he imported the first Personal Computer to Sri Lanka in 1970s.
BESK (Binär Elektronisk SekvensKalkylator) was Sweden’s first electronic computer, using vacuum tubes instead of relays. It was developed by Matematikmaskinnämnden (Swedish Board for Computing Machinery) and for a short time it was the fastest computer in the world. The computer was completed in 1953 and in use until 1966.
The Z4 was the world’s first commercial digital computer, designed by German engineer Konrad Zuse and built by his company Zuse Apparatebau between 1942 and 1945.
The first computer in Tanzania, an ICT 1500, was installed in the Ministry of Finance in 1965.
for the national provident fund
In 1963 Prof. Bundhit Kantabutra brought the first two computers into Thailand, marking the dawn of the Thai Information Age.
Trinidad and Tobago (1960?)
…the CSO of Trinidad and Tobago acquired its first computer for the 1960 population census…
“The first computer was introduced in Tunisia in 1968,” [S. Karoui] said.
The first computer came to Turkey in 1960 and it was used in General Directorate of Highways
1960: First computer to be installed in Turkey, an IBM 650, is delivered
The first computer ever in Uganda was an unwieldy mainframe, which arrived in 1967. According to Dr Ham-Mukasa Mulira, an IT expert, Independence resulted in a rise in government workers so the computer was brought in to help with management of public servant’s payroll.
The first computer in continental Europe was built in Ukraine under the supervision of the scholar Sergey Lebedev and well-known scientist V.Hlushkov. It happened in 1950 in Kyiv.
La Udelar difundió un imperdible video de 1968 que cuenta el “funcionamiento de la computación”, con motivo de la llegada de la primera computadora al país.
Mientras IBM instalaba la primera computadora en aterrizar en América Latina en 1957, un país revuelto por un plesbicito que aseguraba la permanencia del dictador Marcos Pérez Jiménez generaba disturbios en universidades y un amplio rechazo popular. A pesar de esto, el IBM 650 instalado en Venezuela se convertía en un hito en el continente.
Former Yugoslavia (1960)
CER model 10 was a vacuum tube, transistor and electronic relay based computer developed at IBK-Vinča and the Mihajlo Pupin Institute (Belgrade) in 1960. It was the first digital computer developed in SFR Yugoslavia, and in Southern Europe.
The first computer to be installed in Zambia was at the Ministry of Finance in early 1960. This machine was mainly used for accounting purposes…
Some comments on the achievements and difficulties of the first year's operation of an I.C.T. 1202 computer in Government work in Salisbury [now Harare].
by the author.